He was prominent in the early church but is not mentioned by name in this Gospel -- which would be natural if he wrote it, but hard to explain otherwise.
The author knew Jewish life well, as seen from references to popular Messianic speculations (see, e.g., and note; -42), to the hostility between Jews and Samaritans (see 4:9 and note), and to Jewish customs, such as the duty of circumcision on the eighth day taking precedence over the prohibition of working on the Sabbath (see note on ).
This summary of the Gospel of John provides information about the title, author(s), date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Gospel of John.
He knew the geography of the Holy Land, locating Bethany about 15 stadia (about two miles) from Jerusalem () and mentioning Cana, a village not referred to in any earlier writing known to us (2:1 [see note there]; 21:2).
The Gospel of John has many touches that appear to reflect the recollections of an eyewitness -- such as the house at Bethany being filled with the fragrance of the broken perfume jar (see 12:3 and note).
Any solution must account for the similarities and differences in content, order, and wording.
Possible answers speculate either a direct relationship (one Evangelist possessed one of the gospels) or indirect (two Evangelists having access to a shared source).
Most Protestant and some Roman Catholic scholars agree that Matthew and Luke were written later than Mark, which they followed closely.